A Farm is a range of land that is given basically to horticultural procedures with the essential target of creating nourishment and different harvests; it is the fundamental office in sustenance production. The name is utilized for specific units, for example, arable homesteads, vegetable ranches, organic product ranches, dairy and poultry ranches, and arrive utilized for the generation of regular strands, biofuel and different wares. It incorporates farms, feedlots, plantations, manors and bequests, smallholdings and interest cultivates, and incorporates the farmhouse and horticultural structures and additionally the land. In present day times the term has been stretched out in order to incorporate such mechanical operations as wind ranches and angle ranches, both of which can work ashore or ocean.
Farming began autonomously in various parts of the world, as seeker gatherer social orders progressed to nourishment creation instead of, sustenance catch. It might have begun around 12,000 years back with the taming of animals in the Fertile Crescent in western Asia, destined to be trailed by the development of harvests. Current units have a tendency to have practical experience in the harvests or animals most appropriate to the area, with their completed items being sold for the retail showcase or for additionally handling, with cultivate items being exchanged far and wide.
According to the World Bank, “most empirical evidence indicates that land productivity on large farms in Pakistan is lower than that of small farms, holding other factors constant.” Small farmers have “higher net returns per hectare” than large farms, according to farm household income data.
Types of Farming Systems Practices in Pakistan
(1) Subsistence Farming:
Majority of farmers in the country practise subsistence farming. It is characterised by small and scattered land holdings and use of primitive tools. As the farmers are poor, they do not use fertilisers and high yielding variety of seeds in their fields to the extent they should do. Facilities like electricity and irrigation are generally not available to them. These result into low productivity.
Where facilities like irrigation and electricity are available, farming has improved. Important cash crops like
Wheat, Rice, Cotton, Sugarcane, Maize, Oilseeds Coarse grains and pulses are grown
The subsistence agriculture has given way to commercial agriculture to some extent. Dry land farming is practised in areas where the rainfall is low and irrigation facilities are inadequate.
Wetland farming is practised in high rainfall and irrigated areas. Rice, sugarcane and vegetables are important crops in these areas.
Features of Subsistence Farming:
The whole family works on the farm.
Most of the work is done manually.
The farms are small.
Tradition methods of farming are followed.
Yield is not very high.
Most of the yield is consumed by the family with very little surplus for the family.
2- Shifting Agriculture:
In this kind of agriculture, above all else a bit of backwoods arrive is cleared by felling trees and consuming of trunks and branches. After the land is cleared, crops are developed for a few years and afterward the land is surrendered as the richness of the dirt declines. The ranchers at that point move to new ranges and the procedure is rehashed. Dry paddy, maize, millets and vegetables are the harvests usually developed in this kind of cultivating.
The per hectare yield is low. This training is known by various name in various districts of India like Jhum in Assam, Ponam in Kerala, Podu in Andhra Pradesh and Odisha and bewar masha penda and bera in different parts of Madhya Pradesh. Quite far governments have endeavored to disheartened is routine with regards to development by tribals because of inefficient nature, for example, soil disintegration caused by it, when soil disintegration caused by it, when soils are not under development.
Highlights of Shifting Agriculture:
A clearing is made in the timberland by cutting and consuming of the trees.
Seeds are planted in the ground. This kind of development does not include furrowing the dirt or other farming practices.
Following a few years, the clearing is relinquished as the yield diminishes inferable from weeds, soil disintegration and loss of soil ripeness.
At that point a crisp clearing is made and the group relocates of that region.
This is an inefficient technique for development.
3- Plantation Agriculture
Plantation farming is bush or tree farming. It was introduced by the British in the nineteenth century. It is a single crop farming of rubber, tea, coffee, cocoa, spices, coconut and fruit crops like apples, grapes, oranges, etc. It is capital intensive and demands good managerial ability, technical know-how, sophisticated machinery, fertilisers, irrigation, and transport facilities.
4- Intensive Farming:
In areas where irrigation has been possible, the farmers use fertilisers and pesticides on large scale. They have also brought their land under high yielding variety of seeds. They have mechanised agriculture by introducing machines in various processes of farming. These have led intensive farming where the yield per unit area is high. In some areas, this has led to the development of dairy farming.
5- Dry Agriculture:
This practice is followed in areas where irrigation facilities are lacking. Crops cultivated in these areas can withstand dry conditions. The crops grown generally with the help of irrigation are also grown under dry farming. In such circumstances the per hectare yields are generally lower. Most of the area under dry cultivation entertain only one crop during the year. This is practiced in drier parts of Rajasthan, Gujarat, and Madhya Pradesh etc.
6- Mixed and Multiple Agriculture:
Mixed farming is referred to cultivation of crops and raising of animals simultaneously. The multiple farming is used to denote the practice of growing two or more crops together. In such case a number of crops having varying maturing periods are sown at the same time. The crop maturing early is generally harvested before the growth of the long maturing crop and there is thus not much completion between the crops growth. This practice is followed is areas having good rainfall or facilities of irrigation.
7- Crop Rotation:
This refers to growing of number of Crops one after the other in a fixed rotation to maintain the fertility of the soil. The rotation of crops may be complete in a year in some of the areas while it may involve more than one year’s time is others.
Pulses or any leguminous crop is grown after the cereal crops. Legumes have the ability of fixing nitrogen to the soil. Highly fertilizer intensive crops like sugarcane or tobacco are rotated with cereal crops. The selection of crops for rotation depends upon the local soil conditions and the experience and the understanding of the farmers.
Features of Plantation Agriculture:
- Huge Estates
- one crop farming
- Labour intensive
- Huge capital investment
- Modern and scientific techniques used
- Crops mainly grown for trade
8- Sedentary Cultivation or Permanent Agriculture:
It is also known as settled cultivation. In it farmers get settled at the place and practice continued use of land year after year with the variation of crops. In it permanent settlement of farmers exists. It is the normal system of agricultural practice found in almost every part of Pakistan.
9- Terrace Cultivation:
Where lands are of sloping nature, this type of cultivation is practiced specially in hilly areas. The hill and mountain slopes are cut to form terrace sand the land is used in the same way as in permanent agriculture. Since the availability of flat land is limited terraces are made to provide small patch of level land. Soil erosion is also checked due to terrace formation on hill slops.